Armenia

Armenia

Full name: Republic of Armenia
The country was named according with the legend by the name of Armenak, father of all Armenians

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Capital: Yerevan
Location: Southwestern Asia, east of Turkey
Area: 29,743 sq km.
Geographic coordinates: 4327' and 4637' N, 3850' and 4118' E
Neighboring countries: Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Turkey.
Land boundaries: in the East and South with Azerbaijan - 787 km, in the West with Turkey - 268 km, in the South with Iran - 35 km, in the North with Georgia - 164 km
Note: the highest point of the region and historical symbol of Armenia - Ararat Mountain (4,095 m), located on the territory of Turkey from 1921.

Geographical location and nature


Map of Armenia

The State in Western Asia (Transcaucasia). In the east it borders with Azerbaijan (566 km length of the border) to the west - with Turkey (268 km), to the south - with Azerbaijan (Nakhichevan region) (221 km) and Iran (35 km), on the north by Georgia (164 km). The total length of the border - 1,254 km. The total area of the country - 29,743 sq km. There is a serious territorial dispute with Azerbaijan over the ethnic Armenian enclave of Nagorno-Karabakh. Armenia - Mountain Region, located in the Armenian plateau, the average height is 1,700 meters above sea level, the highest point - Mount Ararat (4,090 m). North-eastern part of the Armenian plateau is crossed by numerous mountain ranges of the Lesser Caucasus, separated by intermountain valleys. In Armenia, more than one hundred lakes, many of which arose in tectonic depressions. The biggest of them - Lake Sevan, an area of over 1,200 sq km. Most of the rivers flows through the river Araks and Kura in the Caspian Sea. The country is rich in mineral springs. There are small reserves of gold, molybdenum, copper and zinc. A large number of building stone. Arable lands constitute about 17%, meadows and pastures occupy 20% of the country.


Administrative division

Armenia is divided into 11 provinces. Provinces are composed of both urban and rural communities. The Republic 953 villages, 48 towns, 932 communities, of which 871 rural and 61 urban.

Administrative Divisions of Armenia
No.   Full Name Administration Center
  City of the Republican Value:
1.  Yerevan Capital
  Provinces:
1.  Aragatsotn Ashtarak
2.  Ararat Artashat
3.  Armavir Armavir
4.  Vayots Dzor Yeghegnadzor
5.  Gegharkunik Gavar
6.  Kotayk Hrazdan
7.  Lori Vanadzor
8.  Siunik Kapan
9.  Tavoush Ijevan
10.  Shirak Giumri

Population

The population is 3,250,000 people (2009), population density 108,4 people per sq km, Armenians - 97,89%, Russian - 0,46%, Kurds - 0,047%, Yezidis - 1,26% and other ethnic groups. About 5 million Armenians live outside Armenia. Official language Armenian (spoken by 93% of the population), distributed as the Russian language - 2%, other - 5%. The majority of believers (94% of the population), Christians belonging to the Armenian Apostolic Church and Russian Orthodox Church. Life expectancy: men - 69 years, women - 76 years.


Climate

The climate is continental, dry. The average annual rainfall of 200 to 400 mm in the foothills in the mountainous regions - up to 500 mm. In the foothills the average July temperature about 25 degrees Celsius, January - 5 degrees below zero Celsius, and in the mountains - 20 degrees Celsius in July, -6 degrees Celsius in January.


Flora

The lower reaches of the mountains in Armenia are covered with deciduous forests, extending above the alpine meadows.


Fauna

In the national reserves of the country there are brown bear, roe deer, rock deer, lynx, wild boar, jackal.


Government type

Full name - Republic of Armenia. Political system - presidential republic. Capital - Yerevan. Armenian Republic, formed on November 29, 1920, became part of the Soviet Union on December 30, 1922, in 1991 the Supreme Soviet adopted the Declaration of Independence of Armenia. National Day - May 28 - Independence Day.


Economy, transport communications

Main industries: ferrous metallurgy, machine building and metalworking, chemical, light industry (textiles, leather and footwear), food, building materials production. Agriculture employs 31% of the workforce, grown citrus, cotton, development of dairy farming, the wineries made famous varieties of cognac and wines. GNP in 2008 amounted to 11,917 billion U.S. dollars. (GNP per capita - 5,792 U.S. dollars). Monetary unit - AMD (AMD), 1 dram = 100 lumash. Export: machinery and transport equipment, ferrous and nonferrous metals, chemicals. Major trading partners - the CIS countries.

The total length of railways - 840 km, auto roads - 11,300 km, of which 10,500 km - paved.


History

The first state entity in the territory of modern Armenia was the kingdom of Urartu, founded in 13 century B.C. The country for many years been subjected to attacks of the Assyrians, and in 7 century - was invaded by Indo-European tribe which was mingling with the local population and formed the Armenian nation. The new state came under the rule of the Persian Empire, the Empire of Alexander of Macedon, the Roman Empire. In 7-15 cc. Armenia was conquered by the Arabs, Byzantines, Seljuk Turks, Mongols and Tatars. In the 16-18 centuries the country was divided between Iran and Turkey, in the early 19 century eastern part of Armenia was annexed to Russia. The national liberation struggle of Armenians against Turkish rule resulted in a massive repression on the part of Turkey, of which the most murderous were in 1894-1896 and 1915-1916 years. (About 2 million Armenians were killed). In 1920, the Bolsheviks proclaimed the Soviet Socialist Republic of Armenia, which soon became part of the USSR. After independence in 1991 Armenia became embroiled in an armed conflict with Azerbaijan over the status of Nagorno-Karabakh.


Places of interest

Surb Echmiadzin Cathedral Garni Temple Church of St. Gregory
Surb Echmiadzin Cathedral Garni Temple Church of St. Gregory

Yerevan and Mount Ararat Geghard Monastery
Yerevan and Mount Ararat Geghard Monastery

In Armenia there are Dilijan and Khosrov reserves, national park on the picturesque Lake Sevan. There are many health resorts, among them Arzni, Dilijan, Jermuk. In Yerevan noteworthy: Avan Cathedral (591-602 years) Church Katoghike (13 c.) And Zoravor (17-18 cc.). The capital has 21 museum.


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