Azerbaijan

Azerbaijan

Full name: Republic of Azerbaijan
From Persian "azar" - fire, "abadagan" - collecting

CONTENTS:

Additional information:
 1. Culture



The capital: Baku
Location: Southwestern Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea, between Iran and Russia, with a small European portion north of the Caucasus range
Area: 86,600 sq km
Geographic coordinates: the country is located between 44 and 52 E, 38 and 42 N, Baku is situated on the 40 parallel
Neighboring countries: Iran, Turkey, Russia, Georgia, Armenia
Land boundaries: in the South with Iran - 765 km and with Turkey - 15 km, in the North with Russia - 390 km, in the North-East with Georgia - 480 km, in the West with Armenia - 1,007 km
Note: the distance from Baku to the North Pole is 5,550 km, the distance to the Equator is 4,440 km

Geographical location and nature


Map of Azerbaijan

State in the West Asia (Caucasus region). With Armenia borders to the west (the length of the border - 566 km) and to the south-west (the Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic - 221 km), with Iran - in the south (432 km) and south-west (179 km), in the south-west also borders with (Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic) and Turkey (9 km), to the north Azerbaijan is bordered by Russia (284 km), north-west - with Georgia (322 km). The Caspian Sea washes the country from the east. The total length of the border - 2,013 km. The total area of the country's 86,600 sq km, (12% forest, 1,7% water basin, 54,9% of arable land, including 31,1% meadows and pastures, 31,4% other lands), including Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic, separated from the main territory of Armenia. The status of Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Region was abolished by the Supreme Soviet of Azerbaijan Republic on November 26, 1991. Azerbaijan claims for the part of the Caspian Sea, with Armenia there are serious territorial dispute on the ethnic issue in Nagorno-Karabakh. Almost half of the land is occupied by mountains: the Greater Caucasus mountain range in north-east, south-west - the ridge of the Lesser Caucasus. In the central part of the state is the Kura-Araz lowlands, the average altitude of which is 200 m. In Azerbaijan, there are about 250 lakes. Azerbaijan has rich reserves of oil, natural gas, as well as iron ore and nonferrous metals. For plowing allocated about 30% of the territory, most of the arable land is occupied by the main crops, 50% of the territory occupied by meadows and pastures.


Administrative division

Subdivisions of Azerbaijan - is a territorial division of Azerbaijan's territorial administrative units, in accordance with the system of local government constructed. Considering the economic and geographical location, natural resources and minerals, the population of the territory, administrative division and the specifics of the development Azerbaijan Republic is divided into 10 economic regions:

 1. Absheron economic region
 2. Ganja-Gazakh economic region
 3. Sheki-Zagatala economic region
 4. Lenkeran economic region
 5. Guba-Khachmaz economic region
 6. Aran economic region
 7. Upper Garabag economic region
 8. Kelbajar-Lachin economic region
 9. Mountainous Shirvan economic region
10. Nakhchivan economic region

Administrative territory of Azerbaijan is divided into 11 cities, 59 districts and 1 autonomous republic - Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic. Districts, in turn, divided into 2,698 municipalities.

A part of the territory of Azerbaijan controlled by the breakaway Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, another part of the territory controlled by Armenia. Affiliation of a number of the territories controlled by Azerbaijan, in turn, disputed by Nagorno-Karabakh Republic and Armenia.

Administrative Divisions of Azerbaijan
No.   Full Name Administration Center
  City of the Republican Value:
1.  Baku city Capital
2.  Ganja city
3.  Yevlakh city
4.  Lankaran city
5.  Mingachevir city
6.  Naftalan city
7.  Sumgayit city
8.  Khankendi city
9.  Sheki city
10.  Shirvan city
11.  Shusha city
  Districts:
1.  Agdam district Agdam
2.  Agdash district Agdash
3.  Aghjabadi district Aghjabadi
4.  Agstafa district Agstafa
5.  Absheron district Xirdalan
6.  Astara district Astara
7.  Aghsu district Aghsu
8.  Barda district Barda
9.  Beylagan district Beylagan
10.  Balaken district Balaken
11.  Bilesuvar district Bilesuvar
12.  Dashkesen district Dashkesen
13.  Devechi district Devechi
14.  Fizuli district Fizuli
15.  Gabala district Gebele
16.  Goygol district Goygol
17.  Geychay district Geychay
18.  Goranboy district Goranboy
19.  Gobustan district Gobustan
20.  Gazakh district Gazakh
21.  Gakh district Gakh
22.  Gedebey district Gedebey
23.  Gubadli district Gubadli
24.  Guba district Guba
25.  Gusar district Gusar
26.  Hajigabul district Gaz?mammed
27.  Imishli district Imishli
28.  Ismayilli district Ismayilli
29.  Jelilabad district Jelilabad
30.  Jabrayil district Jabrayil
31.  Khachmaz district Khachmaz
32.  Khocavend district Khocavend
33.  Khojali district Khojali
34.  Khyzi district Khyzi
35.  Kelbajar district Kelbajar
36.  Kurdamir district Kurdamir
37.  Lachin district Lachin
38.  Lankaran district Lankaran
39.  Lerik district Lerik
40.  Masally district Masally
41.  Neftchala district Neftchala
42.  Oghuz district Oghuz
43.  Saatly district Saatly
44.  Sabirabad district Sabirabad
45.  Salyan district Salyan
46.  Samukh district Nabiagali
47.  Siyazan district Siyazan
48.  Shamkir district Shamkir
49.  Sheki district Sheki
50.  Shamakhi district Shamakhi
51.  Shusha district Shusha
52.  Tovuz district Tovuz
53.  Terter district Terter
54.  Ujar district Ujar
55.  Yardymli district Yardymli
56.  Yevlakh district Yevlakh
57.  Zagatala district Zagatala
58.  Zangilan district Zangilan
59.  Zardab district Zardab
  Autonomous Republic:
1.  Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic Nakhchivan

Population

The population of Azerbaijan is 8,896,900 people (2009), the average population density is 103,9 persons per sq km Azeris make up 95% of the population, among other ethnic groups are Russians there are about 2%, Armenians (almost all Armenians living in Nagorno-Karabakh) - 2%, Dagestani - 2,2%. The state language is Azerbaijani, are also common Russian and Armenian. The vast number of believers - Muslims, mostly Shia Muslims (93% of the population), Orthodox Christians constitute 4,8% of the population. Life expectancy: men - 67 years, women - 75 years.


Climate

The climate is transitional from temperate to subtropical, in the south is subtropical. In July the average temperature ranges from 5C in high mountain areas of Azerbaijan to 25C in low-lying areas. In the foothills of the Greater Caucasus falls about 200 mm of rainfall per year, on the Lankaran lowland - up to 1,700 mm.


Flora

On the mountain slopes grow deciduous forests to the lowland part of the country is characterized by steppe and desert plants.


Fauna

In the mountain forests are found deer, lynx, bear, wild boar, in the steppe dry land many lizards, snakes and other reptiles.


Government type

The political system - Presidential Republic. Capital - Baku. Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic is the part of the country, all other areas are under the direct jurisdiction of the Republic. Azerbaijan got the independence for the first time on May 28, 1918, then on April 28, 1920 Azerbaijan became a Soviet Socialist Republic of Azerbaijan, again the independence was proclaimed on August 30, 1991. National Holiday - May 28 - Republic Day. Head of state - the president, appoints the prime minister.


Economy, transport communications

Azerbaijan is an industrial-agrarian country. GNP in 2008 amounted to 74,856 billion U.S. dollars. (GNP per capita - 7,477 U.S. dollars). The basis of the national economy - oil producing and refining industry, which is closely linked to the development of other industries, primarily chemical, mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, ferrous metallurgy. In order of size of crop areas on the first place are the crops: wheat, rice, winter barley. Among commercial crops - cotton and tobacco. Horticulture and viticulture are also prominent in agriculture, besides grown subtropical (persimmons, pomegranates, figs), cultivated tea. Monetary unit - manat (AZN), 1 manat = 100 kipikam. Major trade partners - the CIS countries.

The total length of railways (including electrified) - 2,090 km, auto roads - 36,700 km. The main sea port - Baku.


History

After a certain period of entering the kingdom of Urartu Azerbaijan, populated by Maedi, was in 3century a province of the Persian Empire. In 8 century the territory of Azerbaijan was occupied by the Arabs, extending the Islamic religion in this region. Azerbaijan nation has developed mainly in the 11-13 centuries, when the country was subjected to invasions by the Seljuk Turks and the Mongol-Tatars. In the 16 century the country once again fell under the influence of the Persian Empire, becoming the object of constant struggle between Iran and Turkey until the mid-18 century. In 1828, the northern part of Azerbaijan was annexed to Russia, while the southern part of Azerbaijan remained in Iran. The Russian part of Azerbaijan became in 1918 an independent republic, but in 1920 the Bolsheviks took power into their own hands and formed the Soviet Republic of Azerbaijan, which officially became part of the Soviet Union in 1936. After the Soviet collapse in 1991, Azerbaijan declared its independence. The first years of the existence of a sovereign state marred by armed ethnic conflict in Nagorno-Karabakh, an autonomous region of Azerbaijan populated mainly by Armenians.


Places of interest

Maiden Tower Shirvanshah Palace Ateshgah Temple
Maiden Tower Shirvanshah Palace. General view of the ensemble Ateshgah Temple

There are resorts such as Istisu, Naftalan, as well as the popular resort areas on the coast of the Caspian Sea. On the territory of Azerbaijan there are three reserves: Turianchaysk, Kyzylagach and Zakatalsk. Among the architectural monuments of Baku are interesting: an ancient fortress Icheri Sheher, minaret Synyk Kala (11century) "Maiden Tower" - the symbol of Baku. Also interesting Ateshgyah Temple - the temple of the eternal flame, which is located 30 km from Baku.


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