Georgia

Georgia*

Full name: Republic of Georgia*
* Georgia has completely left the CIS on January 22, 2010
National name Sakartvelo (Kartveli - "Georgian")

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Additional information:



Capital: Tbilisi
Location: in the Western part of the Caucasus region of Eurasia, in the Eastern coast of the Black Sea
Area: 69,700 sq km
Geographic coordinates: 42 N and 4330' E
Neighboring countries: Azerbaijan, Armenia, Russia, Turkey
Land boundaries: in the North with Russia - 723 km, in the South with Turkey - 252 km, Azerbaijan - 322 km and Armenia - 164 km
Note: Georgia regards some territories as occupied and as a part of Georgia - Abkhazia and South Ossetia are the territories that Russia and some other countries recognized as independent states

Geographical location and nature


Map of Georgia

The State in Western Asia (Transcaucasia). In the North borders with Russia (the length of the border is 723 km), in the south - with Turkey (252 km), Azerbaijan (322 km) and Armenia (164 km) in the west washed by the Black Sea. The total length of the border is 1,461 km, coastline length - 310 km. The total area of the country is 69,700 sq km. Most of the country is occupied by mountains (over 4/5 of the territory). The Greater Caucasian Ridge form the northern boundary. Here is the country's highest peak - Mount Shkhara (5,068 m). The south part of the territory is occupied by the Lesser Caucasus Ridge, its height is not exceeding 3 000 m. Between the ridges are the valleys of the rivers Kura and Rioni. In the west, along the Black Sea, stretches Kolkheti lowland. In the east dominated by steppe. The state is rich in manganese, iron and copper ores, there are minor coal and oil. Under the arable land allocated 11% of all lands, forests and shrubs occupy 38% of the country, meadows and pastures - 29%.


Administrative division

Administrative Divisions of Georgia
No.  Full Name Administration Center
  City of the Republican Value:
1.  Tbilisi City Capital
  Regions:
1.  Guria Region Ozurgeti
2.  Imereti Region Kutaisi
3.  Kakheti Region Telavi
4.  Kvemo Kartli Region Rustavi
5.  Samtskhe-Javakheti Region Akhaltsikhe
6.  Mtskheta-Mtianeti Region Mtskheta
7.  Racha-Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti Region Ambrolauri
8.  Samegrelo and Zemo Svaneti Region Zugdidi
9.  Shida Kartli Region Gori
  Autonomous Republics:
1.  Ajara Autonomous Republics Batumi
2.  Abkhazia Autonomous Republics Sokhumi

Population

The population is 4,630,003 people (2008). The average population density is about 67 persons per sq. km. The largest ethnic group - Georgian (83,7% of the population), Armenian - 5,7%, Russian - 1,5%, Azeri - 6,5%, Ossetian - 0,9% and other ethnic groups. Most of the inhabitants profess Christianity: Georgian Orthodox - 65%, Russian Orthodox - 10%, Armenian Orthodox - 8%, Muslims are about 11% of the population. The state language is Georgian. Russian, Armenian and Azerbaijani are also common. Life expectancy: men - 69 years, women - 77 years.


Climate

In the west, subtropical, in the east - transitional from subtropical to moderate.

Average January temperatures range from +3 to -9 degrees Celsius on the Colchis lowland and in Ajara, to -2 degrees Celsius in the Iberian Basin. In the mountainous regions of Svaneti and Javakheti winter temperatures can fall to -16 -20 degrees Celsius. Summers are hot and long - the average August temperature is almost throughout the country ranging from +23 to +26 degrees Celsius.

Fallout of precipitation is evenly throughout the year with a slight increase in autumn and winter. In Imereti and Ajara annual precipitation is from 1,000 to 2,800 mm of precipitation, in Kakheti and Javakheti - 300-600 mm. In mountainous areas, snow falls in November and steadily kept up to March or April.


Flora

In Colchis deciduous forests of Georgia grow Tissa, boxwood, oak, Pontic Rhododendron, hornbeam, laurel, bur grass and lianas. On the plateau - pistachio, Celtis and juniper.


Fauna

The fauna of Georgia is quite rich: Caucasian tour, antelope, bezoar goat, Caucasian deer, brown bear. Many birds, including the Alpine Chough, Caucasian black grouse, ular.


Government type

Political system - Presidential Republic. Capital - Tbilisi. The country is divided into 66 administrative districts, Georgia also includes two autonomous republics: Abkhazia and Ajara (South-Ossetian autonomous region abolished by the central authorities in December 1990). Georgia received the independence on April 9, 1991, after the collapse of the Soviet Union (former name - Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic). National Day - April, 9 - Independence Day (1991).


Economy, transport communications

Georgia - agro-industrial country, rich in minerals. But the consequences of the severance of economic ties with the republics of the former USSR, political instability and war in Abkhazia had a negative impact on the economy of Georgia. In many industries, the most developed of which - food, light industry, machine-building, metallurgy, non-ferrous metallurgy, chemical, fuel, - there is a decline in production. GNP in 2009 was 11,271 billion US dollars. (GNP per capita - 4,400 US dollars). Fertile soils favor the development of agriculture. Nearly half of all crops in Georgia accounted for crops, potatoes, vegetables, grapes, fruits, including citrus are also grown. However, the greatest economic importance are tea plantations, is one of the most important exports. About 30% of gross agricultural output accounted for livestock (cattle, pigs, sheep). There are valuable sources of mineral waters. Currency - Lari (GEL), 1 lari = 100 tetri. Major trade partners of Georgia: Russia, Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan.

The total length of the railways - 1,570 km, auto roads - 33,900 km. Main ports - Batumi and Poti.


History

Between 6 c. and 4 c. BC on the territory of modern Georgia was formed two states - Colchis, located on the Black Sea coast, and Iberia, which includes areas of east modern Georgia. Around 600 BC Greeks established in Colchis their first settlements. The country soon fell under the domination of the Persians, and then was conquered by Alexander the Great, after a reign of which Georgia became an independent state. In 65 BC Colchis came under the power of ancient Rome, while the Persians once again began to dominate over the eastern part of the country. With the adoption of Christianity in the 4 c., in Georgia appear a large quantity of churches and monasteries, which have played an important role in the development of writing and literature. The territory of Georgia for the long period of time has been the subject of claims of the Persian and Byzantine Empires, and in the second half of the 7 c. was captured by the Arabs. At the end of the 8 c. was liberated the western part of the country, towards which, during Bagrat III (974-1014), East Region was joined, except Tiflis, freed from the Muslims in 1122 by the King David IV (1073-1125). Its zenith Georgian state reached during the Queen Tamara (1184-1213), whose lands stretched from the Black Sea to the Caspian Sea. Devastated of Tamerlane invasion in 1386-1405, Georgia for three centuries was the object of dispute between Turks and Persians. As a Persian protectorate from 1786, Georgia asked for protection from Russia, which annexed the country in 1801. During the revolution in Russia, Mensheviks have taken the power in Georgia and in 1918 proclaimed the the independence of the country. After a short period of German occupation, in 1921 Georgia was declared a Soviet republic. After the collapse of the Soviet Union and gained independence in 1991, there were serious inter-ethnic conflicts in Georgia in the regions of South Ossetia and Abkhazia.


Places of interest

The Old City of Vardzia Holy Trinity Cathedral The Top of Mount Kazbek and the Church
The Old City of Vardzia Holy Trinity Cathedral The Top of Mount Kazbek and the Church

There are 15 nature reserves were created in Georgia, among which are Lagodekhi, Borjomi, Ritsinsky. There are many well-known spa and seaside resorts - Borjomi, Gagra, Batumi, Pitsunda. In Tbilisi noteworthy: Sioni Cathedral (5 c.) Monastery of St. David (6 c.), the ruins of the Narikala Citadel, the temple Metechi (1278-1293), a city carved into the rocks - Vardzia, built in the golden age of Queen Tamara (12 c.).


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