Moldova

MOLDOVA

Full name: Republic of Republic of Moldova
By the name of the river Moldova

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Additional information:



Capital: Chisinau (Kishinev)
Location: southeast of Europe
Area: 33,846 sq km
Geographic coordinates: 4528' and 4828' N, 2640' and 3006' E
Neighboring countries: Romania, Ukraine
Land boundaries: in the south, east and north with Ukraine ? 939 km, in the west with Romania ? 450 km
Note: Moldova has access to the Danube (the length of the coastline ? 600 m)

Geographical location and nature


Map of Moldova

The state is in the southwestern part of the East European Plain. In the south, east and north borders with Ukraine (the length of the border is 939 km), in the west borders with Romania (450 km). The total length of the border is 1,389 km. The total area of the country is 33,846 sq km. The territory of the country occupied with hilly plain, intersected by river valleys and draws. The highest point (up to 429 m) of the territory is located in the center of the country - upland of Codri. The main rivers are the Dniester and the Prut. The main minerals are phosphates, clay, limestone. Half of the territory is the arable land.


Administrative Division

No.   Full Name Administration Center
  City of the Republican Value:
1.  Chisinau Capital
2.  Balti  
3.  Bender  
4.  Comrat  
5.  Tiraspol  
  Regions:
1.  Basarabeasca District Basarabeasca
2.  Briceni District Briceni
3.  Glodeni District Glodeni
4.  Donduseni District Donduseni
5.  Drochia District Drochia
6.  Dubasari District Cocieri
7.  Edinet District Edinet
8.  Cahul District Cahul
9.  Cantemir District Cantemir
10.  Calarasi District Calarasi
11.  Causeni District Causeni
12.  Criuleni District Criuleni
13.  Leova District Leova
14.  Nisporeni District Nisporeni
15.  Anenii Noi District Anenii Noi
16.  Ocnita District Ocnita
17.  Orhei District Orhei
18.  Rezina District Rezina
19.  R?scani District R?scani
20.  Soroca District Soroca
21.  Straseni District Straseni
22.  S?ngerei District S?ngerei
23.  Calarasi District Calarasi
24.  Taraclia District Taraclia
25.  Telenesti District Telenesti
26.  Ungheni District Ungheni
27.  Falesti District Falesti
28.  Floresti District Floresti
29.  H?ncesti District H?ncesti
30.  Cimislia District Cimislia
31.  Soldanesti District Soldanesti
32.  Stefan Voda District Stefan Voda
33.  Ialoveni District Ialoveni
34.  Cimislia District Cimislia
  Autonomous Territorial Units:
35.  Autonomous Territorial Unit of Gagauzia Comrat
36.  Transnistria Territorial Unit Tiraspol

Population

The population of the country is 3,567,500 people (2009), the average population density is about 111,4 persons per sq km. Most residents (75,8%) are Moldovan, other ethnic groups - Ukrainian (8,4%), Russian (5,9%), Gagauz, Bulgarian, Armenian, Romanian. The state language is Moldovan, Russian, Romanian, Ukrainian are also widely used. Vast majority of the population professes the Orthodoxy. Life expectancy: men - 65 years, women - 72 years.


Climate

The climate in Moldova is moderate, temperate continental with hot summers, long warm autumn and a relatively mild winter. Predominate warm and humid air masses of the cyclonic nature, reaching from the Atlantic Ocean. The northern and southern regions differ markedly by the average annual air temperature: it is 7,5 degrees Celsius in the north, in the south is 10 degrees Celsius, in Chisinau ? 9,4 degrees Celsius., The average precipitation is 400-550 mm per year, their number decreases from the northwest to the southeast. Their distribution is also influenced by the larger forms of relief: on the western slopes of Codri noted at 50-100 mm more rain than on the eastern. Snow cover is not stable.


Flora

Moldova is located in the forest-steppe and steppe zones of the East European Plain. The natural flora includes more than 1,700 species of ferny and flowering plants, among them - submediterranean plants: oak fluffy, hornbeam, smoke tree, pear, cornflower Anzhilesku etc. Less than 10% of the territory are the forests. They are dominated by oak and hornbeam, on brown soils - beech, rarely silver linden, maple, elm, dogwood, wild cherry and pear. The surface of the soil in many places covered with ivy. In the south of the country are the forests of pubescent oak, called gyrnetsa.


Fauna

There are 400 species of vertebrates and more than 4,500 species of invertebrates in the fauna of the country. From the largest mammal - wild boars, that live in Codri and valleys of the Dniester and the Prut, roe deer, deer. There are also badger, squirrel and marten. Birds - residents and migratory - 260 species. In the woods live wood lark, thrush and black-rumped, long-eared owl. In the steppes can be found quail, partridge, steppe eagle, bustard. In the swamps of the Prut and Dniester breed over 80 species of migratory birds - gray goose, mallard, coot, snipe, duck and marsh harrier.


Government type

Government type - Parliamentary Republic. Capital - Chisinau. In 1990 two districts which are a part of the Republic of Moldova - Gagauz Republic and the Transnistria Moldavian Republic - declared themselves independent, but they are not recognized by the international community. The independence of Moldova was proclaimed on August 27, 1991 (former name - the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic). This day is celebrated as a national holiday - Independence Day.


Economy, transport communications

Leading industry - food, heavy and light industries are also developed. Diversified agriculture provides 40% of GDP (wine and tobacco - one of the most important export products). GNP in 2008 stood at 6,197 billion US dollars (GNP per capita ? 2,500 US dollars). Monetary unit - Lei (MDL), 1 lei equals 100 bani. Major trading partners: Russia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Romania, Germany.

The total length of the railways ? 1,150 km, auto roads - 20,000 km (13,900 km - paved road).


History

From 12th to 14th centuries, the territory of modern Moldova was a part of various state formations - the Scythians, Goths, Huns, Slavs. In the 14th century as a result of contacts between the Volokh and eastern Slavs formed the Moldovan nation, and in 1359 Bogdan I established an independent Moldova, which has reached at that time a high level of spiritual and economic development. Despite the heroic resistance of Stefan the Great, in the 15th century Moldova was conquered by the Turks and became a part of the Ottoman Empire. In 1774, Moldova fell under the rule of the Austrian Empire, and in 1806 - the Russian Empire. In 1859 Moldova united with Wallachia to form the Romanian principality, driven by the Moldovan Prince Alexandru Cuza. On August 2, 1940 on the basis of formed in 1924 the Autonomous Republic of Moldova and annexed Bessarabia in 1940 from Romania was created Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic. Moldova was occupied by Romanian and German troops in 1941, and after liberation in 1944, returned to the Soviet Union. Under the Treaty of Paris in 1947, Romania finally gave up claims to the territory of Moldova. Moldova declared independence in 1991, but the eastern part of the country, which was proclaimed unrecognized by the international community Trans-Dniester Republic, refused to recognize the authority of the new government.


Places of interest

Uspensky Orthodox Monastery Noul Neamt Monastery Triumphal Arch and Orthodox Cathedral Church
Uspensky Orthodox Monastery Noul Neamt Monastery Triumphal Arch and Orthodox Cathedral Church
Soroca Fortress Capriana Monastery Putna Monastery
Soroca Fortress Capriana Monastery Putna Monastery

In Chisinau remarkable: the Church of the Nativity of the Virgin (18th century), Cathedral (19th century), Triumphal Arch (Arch of Victory, 19th century).


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