Tajikistan

Tajikistan

Full name: Republic of Tajikistan
Tajikistan - "the country of Tajik"

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Additional information:



Capital: Dushanbe
Location: Central Asia
Area: 143,100 sq km
Geographic coordinates: 3640' and 4105' N, 6731' and 7514' E
Neighboring countries: Afghanistan, China, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan
Land boundaries: in the South with Afghanistan - 1,206 km, in the North and the West with Uzbekistan - 1,161 km, in the North with Kyrgyzstan - 870 km, in the East with China - 414 km
Note: Over 90% of the territory covered by mountains, more than half of the territory of the country lies at the altitude of 3,000 m above the sea level (the highest point in the country is Ismoil Somoni Peak (from 1962 till 1998 known as Communism Peak)

Geographical location and nature


Map of Tajikistan

The country is located in Central Asia. In the south it borders with Afghanistan (the length of the border 1,206 km), in the west and north - with Uzbekistan (1,161 km), in the north - with Kyrgyzstan (870 km), in the east - with China (414 km). The total length of the border is 3,651 km. The total area of the country is 143,100 sq km (land area - 142,700 sq km). Over 90% of the territory covered by mountains, more than half of the country is at an altitude of 3,000 m above sea level. There are mountain ranges in the north-west and central part of Tajikistan: Zeravshan, Turkestan, Hissar and Altai. The Pamir Mountains with the highest point in Tajikistan - Communism Peak (7,498 m) is in the south-east of the country. Mountain ranges separated by intermountain basins and valleys. In the north is the Fergana valley. To the south-west the area is reduced to Hissar, Vakhsh valleys. The main rivers - the Syr Darya, Amu Darya and Zeravshan. The largest lake is Karakul. The main natural resources: oil, gas, coal, uranium deposits, rich in hydropower resources. Arable land covers 6% of the territory, meadows and pastures - 23%.


Administrative divisions

Administrative Divisions of Tajikistan
No.   Full Name Administration Center
  City of the Republican Value:
1.  Dushanbe Capital
  Province:
1.  Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province Khorugh
2.  Sughd Province Khujand
3.  Khatlon Province Qurghonteppa

Population

The population of the country is 7,215,000 people (2008), the average population density is about 50 persons per sq km. From more than 80 ethnic groups living in the country the largest - Tajik (62,3% of the population), Uzbek - 17%, Russian - 5%, Turkmen, Kyrgyz, Korean, German. Official language is Tajik, Russian is widely used language. The predominant religion - Islam (mostly Sunni), there is also Shiite, Ismaili Muslims). Life expectancy: men - 66 years, women - 72 years.


Climate

The valley part of Tajikistan differs because of the subtropical temperature regime, but its climate is characterized by severe drought and low clouds. Summer in the valleys are hot and long. Average temperature in July is 29-31 degrees Celsius, the average January temperatures are from -15 to -25 degrees Celsius. Maximum precipitation falls is in winter. In the valleys fall up to 150-300 mm of precipitation per year, in the mountains - 1,500-2,000 mm per year.


Flora

The flora of Tajikistan is diversified: many species have survived from ancient times. In the mountains - blooming poppies and Bongard, thickets of honeysuckle, walnut, giant umbrella, Edelweiss. Forests in Tajikistan - juniper forests and deciduous (walnut, maple, ash), jeddah.


Fauna

Fauna is diverse. There are gazelle, hyena, porcupine, hare, bustard, lizard, snake (carpet viper, copperheadsnake) in the deserts. In forest areas - Bukhara deer, wild boar, jungle cat, waterfowl, cobra, viper. In mountains haunt - snow leopard, argali, Afghan moufflon.


Government type

Political system - Republic. The capital - Dushanbe. The country consists - two provinces (Sughd and Khatlon) and Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Region. Tajikistan's independence was proclaimed on September 9, 1991 (former name - Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic), which became the National holiday - Independence Day.


Economy, transport communications

The economy of Tajikistan, as the agro-industrial country is experiencing a deep crisis caused by civil conflict. GDP in 2007 totaled 5,05 billion US dollars. (GNP per capita - 722 USD). The government declared a shift to market forms of economic management, but in the economy continues to dominate government regulation. Among the most developed industries - light, chemical, non-ferrous metallurgy, machinery, food. In agriculture of Tajikistan the leading role plays - cotton (cotton fiber - one of the most important export products), also developed sericulture, horticulture, vegetable growing and viticulture. Major trading partners: Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan. Currency - Somoni (TJS), 1 somoni = 100 dirams.

The total length of the railways - 480 km, auto roads - 29,900 km.


History

The territory of modern Tajikistan in 6 BC was captured by the Persian, and in 4 BC became part of the Empire of Alexander of Macedonia. From 3 BC the country became a part of the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom, and later - Kushan Empire. In 8 c. the territory of modern Tajikistan was conquered by the Arabs, who spread Islam among the Tajik. Having come under the domination of the Persian Samanid in 9-10 centuries, Tajik lands were conquered by the Mongols in the 13 century. As a part of the Khanate of Bukhara from 16 c., the territory of modern Tajikistan was annexed by Russia in 1868. The Soviet government, announced in 1917, established in Tajikistan only in 1922. In 1924 Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Tajikistan as a part of Uzbekistan has become a part of the Soviet Union, and in 1929 received the status as the Union Republic. Soon, after the declaration of independence in 1991, the Civil War broke out in Tajikistan, in which the armed Islamic opposition fought against the former communist government.


Places of interest

Lake Iskanderkul
Lake Iskanderkul

Khujant Hissar Fortress
Khujant Hissar Fortress

Ismoil Somoni Peak Pamir - mountain system Tulip Mountain
Ismoil Somoni Peak Pamir - mountain system Tulip Mountain

In the territory of the country are operating Tiger Beam and Ramit reserves with rich flora and fauna.


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