Full name: Republic of Turkmenistan
By the ethnonym of the people - Turkmen


Additional information:

Capital: Ashgabat
Location: Central Asia
Area: 491,200 sq km
Geographic coordinates: 40 N and 60 E
Neighboring countries: Afghanistan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan.
Land boundaries: in the North and the East with Uzbekistan - 1,621 km, with Kazakhstan - 379 km, in the North, South and East with Afghanistan - 744 km, in the South with Iran - 992 km
Note: in the West borders the Caspian Sea - the coastline is 1,768 km

Geographical location and nature

Map of Turkmenistan

The country in Central Asia. In the north and east borders with Uzbekistan (the length of the border is 1,621 km), with Kazakhstan (379 km) - in the north, in the east and south of the country borders with Afghanistan (744 km), in the south - with Iran (992 km). In the west the country is washed by the Caspian Sea. The total length of the border 3,736 km, the length of the coastline - 1,768 km. The total area of the country is 491,200 sq km. Most of the country - low-lying plain, occupied by the Karakum desert. Desert Area - 375,000 sq km. In the north-west coast of the Caspian Sea is the Gulf of Kara-Bogaz-Gol with height of 35 m below sea level. In the south and south-west lie the mountains of Kopetdag and Paropamiz. The largest lake - salt lake Sarikamish. The main river is Amu Darya. Turkmenistan is rich in oil, gas, potash and rock salts, non-ferrous and rare metals. Arable land occupies 2% of all lands, meadows and pastures - 69%.

Administrative division

Administrative Divisions of Turkmenistan
No.   Full Name Administration Center
  City of the Republican Value:
1.  Ashghabat city Capital
1.  Ahal Province Anau
2.  Balkan Province Balkanabat
3.  Dasoguz Province Dasoguz
4.  Lebap Province Turkmenabat
5.  Mary Province Mary


The population - 4,884,887 people (2008), the average population density is about 10 persons per sq km. Most people - Turkmen (72%), other ethnic groups - Russian (9,5%), Uzbeks (9%), Kazakhs (2,5%), Ukrainians, Tatars, Azeris, Armenians, Baluchis. Official language Turkmen, Russian is also widely used. The predominant religion - Islam (85% of the population - Sunni Muslims), the Orthodox - 10% of the population. Life expectancy: men - 62 years, women - 69 years.


Turkmenistan is peculiar sharply continental dry climate with its typical features - considerable daily and yearly variations in temperature, dry air, minor clouds. Average temperatures range from 11 degrees Celsius in the north to 17 degrees Celsius in the south. Winters are warm, not cold. In July the air temperature and moisture deficit is particularly large. Precipitation is 80 mm per year in the north-east to 300-400 mm per year in the south


The dominant vegetation type of Turkmenistan - deserted. In the low hills grow giant umbrella grass, above - overgrown shrubs, junipers, irises, tulips, mandrake. Especially lush vegetation is in river valleys.


In the deserts the most common of the mammals are gazelle, jackal, Corsac fox, mountain goat; the plains inhabited by rodents, reptiles (varan, agama, cobra, viper, tortoise).

Government type

The political system - Presidential Republic. Capital - Ashgabat. Turkmenistan became an independent state on October 27, 1991 after the collapse of the Soviet Union (former name - the Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic), this date is celebrated as a national holiday - Independence Day of Turkmenistan.

Economy, transport communications

GNP of Turkmenistan in 2007 was 26,215 billion US dollars (GNP per capita - 5,055 US dollars). Basic industries - oil and gas and also petrochemical industries. In agriculture are cultivated cotton, fruits and vegetables. The main export commodities - cotton, diesel, fuel oil, hand-woven carpets. Among the most important trading partners - Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, Turkey. Monetary unit - manat (TMT), 1 manat = 100 tenge.

The total length of the railways - 2,120 km, auto roads - 13,000 km.


In 1st millennium BC on the territory of modern Turkmenistan were existed Margu, Parthia, Media, in the 6th century Turkmens came under the domination of the Persian Empire, and in the 4 c - the Empire of Alexander of Macedon. Conquered in the 8th century by the Arabs, who spread Islam among the local population, the territory of modern Turkmenistan in 9-10th centuries was part of the states of Tahirid, Samanid, in 11-13 centuries was the part of Seljuk Empire (large Turkmen revolt in 1241). In the 13th century the country was conquered by the Mongol armies led by Genghis Khan, who integrated the territory of Turkmenistan to his great empire. In the 17-19th centuries the territory of modern Turkmenistan was the subject of dispute between the Shah of Persia, the Khan of Khiva and Bukhara Emir. In 1869, on the eastern shore of the Caspian Sea Russian founded the port named Krasnovodsk, and by the mid 80's of the 19th century country's territory was annexed by the Russian empire, which crushed the revolt of the Turkmen in 1881. After the Russian Revolution in 1917, the temporary Turkmen government announced independence of Turkmenistan, but in 1920 the Bolsheviks established the Soviet regime in the country. Turkestan Autonomous Republic was transformed in 1924 in the Union Republic of Turkmenistan, which declared independence in 1991.

Places of interest

Kyz Kala Kunya Urgench Sultan Sanjar Mausoleum
Kyz Kala Kunya Urgench Sultan Sanjar Mausoleum

Modern Ashgabat
Modern Ashgabat

There are three natural reserves in the country: Badkhyz, Repetek and Krasnovodsk. In Turkmenistan are many resorts: climatic resorts Firyuza and Bairam-Ali; balneological - Archman and Mollakara. Country is anciently famous for its silk and fine carpets.