Uzbekistan

Uzbekistan

Full name: Republic of Uzbekistan
By the ethnonym of the people - Uzbek

CONTENTS:

Additional information:
 1. State Symbols



Capital: Tashkent
Location: in the Western part of the Caucasus region of Eurasia, in the Eastern coast of the Black Sea
Area: 447,400 sq km, land - 425,400 sq km, water - 22,000 sq km
Geographic coordinates: 41 N, 64 E
Neighboring countries: Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan
Land boundaries: total - 6,221 km, with Afghanistan - 137 km, Kazakhstan - 2,203 km, Kyrgyzstan - 1,099 km, Tajikistan - 1,161 km and Turkmenistan - 1,621 km
Note: the shoreline also passes along the coast of the Aral Sea - 420 km

Geographical location and nature


Map of Uzbekistan

The country in Central Asia. The border with Kazakhstan is in the north and west (the length of the border - 2,203 km), to the south - Turkmenistan (1,621 km) and Afghanistan (137 km), in the south-east - with Tajikistan (1,161 km), to the east - with Kyrgyzstan (1,099 km). The total length of the border is 6,221 km. The total area of the country is 447,400 sq km (land area - 425,400 sq km). Most of the territory (about 3/4) occupied by the plains, mainly Turan lowland, within which the Kyzyl Kum desert - one of the largest in the world. In the north-east and south stretch the mountains and foothills of the Tien Shan and Hissar-Alai up to 4,643 m, as well as share them intermountain basins and valleys: Fergana, Zeravshan, Chirchik-Angren and others. The main rivers - the Amu Darya, Syr Darya - flow into the Aral Sea, which recently lost more than 2/3 of its water surface because of the reckless irrigation. Uzbekistan has large deposits of natural gas, lignite and coal, gold, copper, tungsten, bismuth, open oil reserves.


Administrative division

Administrative Divisions of Uzbekistan
No.  Full Name Administration Center
  City of the Republican Value:
1. Tashkent city Capital
  Provinces:
1.  Andijan Province Andijan
2.  Bukhara Province Bukhara
3.  Jizzakh Province Jizzakh
4.  Kashkadarya Province Karshi
5.  Navoi Province Navoi
6.  Namangan Province Namangan
7.  Samarkand Province Samarkand
8.  Surkhandarya Province Termez
9.  Syrdarya Province Gulistan
10. Tashkent Province Tashkent
11. Ferghana Province Ferghana
12. Khorezm Province Urgench
  Autonomous Republic:
1. Autonomous Republic of Karakalpakstan Nukus

Population

The population is 27,555,300 people (2009), the average population density is about 60 persons per sq km. The largest ethnic group - Uzbeks (80,1% of the population), in the country also live Russian (3,5%), Tajiks (5%), Kazakhs (3,1%), Karakalpaks, Tatars, Kyrgyz, Turkmen, Ukrainian, Armenians, Azeris, Jews, Belarusians, Germans. Most of the faithful - Sunni Muslims, the rest - Orthodox Christians, Protestants, Jews. Life expectancy: men - 68 years, women - 72 years.


Climate

Uzbekistan differs with hot, continental, dry climate. Average annual temperature - from 9 degrees Celsius in the north to 16 degrees Celsius in the south. Summer is hot, no rain, the temperature is kept at 30 degrees Celsius. In summer and autumn on the plains are often dust storms. Precipitation from 30 mm (on the plains) to 1,000 mm per year (in the mountains). Maximum precipitation occurs in spring and winter.


Flora

Flora of Uzbekistan is rich and diverse. In the mountains up to 20% of the plant species are endemics. There are a lot of cereal, junipers, shrubs pistachios, almonds, giant umbrella. Much of the land is occupied by the deserts, with a characteristic desert vegetation: shrub Calligonum, black and white Haloxylon, different species of Artemisia.


Fauna

The desert is inhabited by gazelles, antelopes, plenty of rodents, a lot of snakes (including Echis, cobra), lizards (varan, agama, gecko). The fauna of the mountains is diverse: mountain goat, snow leopard, marmot, turtles, snakes and numerous birds.


Government type

Political system - Presidential Republic. Capital - Tashkent. The country has 12 regions and Karakalpak Autonomous Republic. The independence of Uzbekistan was declared on August 31, 1991, following the collapse of the USSR (former name - the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic). National Day (Independence Day) - September 1.


Economy, transport communications

The economic policy pursued by the authorities in recent years, was aimed at deepening market reforms, privatization and expansion of business activities, providing financial and macroeconomic stability, strengthening the national currency. GNP in 2008 amounted to 65,325 billion US dollars. (GNP per capita - 2,370 US dollars). The most developed industries: non-ferrous metallurgy (copper production, refractory and high-temperature metals, gold), textiles, fuel, chemical, food processing, mechanical engineering. Agriculture specializes mainly in cotton. Rice growing, winegrowing, melon-growing, vegetable growing are also developing. Livestock is the leading sector of agricultural production. In the structure of exports the largest share continues to hold commodities (especially cotton), the proportion of finished products is not increased. Besides the cotton Uzbekistan also export gold, natural gas, non-ferrous metals, chemical and petrochemical products, vegetables, caracul, raw silk, wool. The currency - soum (UZS), 1 sum equal to 100 tiyin. Major trading partners: CIS countries, Germany, Japan, China, South Korea.

The total length of the railways is 6,700 km of which in general use - 3,500 km, auto roads - 80,000. km.


History

The territory of modern Uzbekistan was lying on the Silk Road, which was held from China to the Middle East. Already in the 8 c. BC had the first state formation - Bactria, and later emerged the state Khorezm, Sogdiana, Parthia. Captured by the Persian king Cyrus II the Great in the 6 c. BC, this region of Central Asia became the part of the empire of Alexander the Macedonian in the 4 c. BC. In 6 c. the territory of modern Uzbekistan came under Turkish rule, in the 7-8 cc. was conquered by the Arabs, who have distributed among the Uzbek their culture and religion, but by 10 c. was back under the rule of the Turks. In the 13 c. the region was conquered by the Mongols and remained part of the Mongol Empire until the end of the 15 c. and in early 16 c. was conquered by the Uzbek tribes, who founded the Bukhara and Khorezm (or Khiva) Khanate. Later, in 18c., was formed Kokand Khanate. In 19c. the territory of modern Uzbekistan has claimed Russia, and in 1868. All three khanates were forced to recognize themselves as the vassals of the Russian Empire. After the Russian Revolution in 1917 in Kokand was formed national government which soon was ousted by the communists, proclaimed in April Turkestan Autonomous Republic. The armed struggle between the Bolsheviks and the Uzbek nationalists lasted until 1922, when were formed Khorezm and Bukhara People's Soviet Republic. In 1924, after the revision of the borders in Soviet Central Asia was established the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic, the part of which became the territories of Bukhara and Khorezm republics and the territories of the Turkestan Republic. In 1989, the country has seen fierce clashes between Uzbeks and Meskhetians - Georgian Muslims, exiled by Stalin in the period of repression in Uzbekistan. After the collapse of the USSR Uzbekistan declared independence in August 1991.


Places of interest

Registan Gur-Emir Mausoleum Medrese Miri-Arab
Registan Gur-Emir Mausoleum Medrese Miri-Arab

Timur's Palace Aq-Saray Ismail Samani Mausoleum Shahi-Zinda Necropolis
Timur's Palace Aq-Saray Ismail Samani Mausoleum Shahi-Zinda Necropolis

Ark-Citadel Hazrati Imam Lyabi Haus
Ark-Citadel Hazrati Imam Lyabi Haus

Chor-Minor Medrese Islam Hoja Minaret  Kalyan Minaret Kalta Minor Minaret
Chor-Minor Medrese Islam Hoja Minaret Kalyan Minaret Kalta Minor Minaret

Uzbekistan is famous in the world thanks to the many preserved in the territory of the country historical and architectural monuments. In Samarkand is remarkable parade square Registan (15-17 cc.) - three medreses with the rich mosaic and carved decoration out of marble and ceramic; ensemble of the memorial and religious buildings Shahi-Zinda (14-15 cc.) with the most beautiful mausoleums, mosques; complex Bibi Khanum (1399-1404), consisting of a mosque of Timur and medrese Sarap-Mulk Khanum; Gur-Emir Mausoleum (1403-1404) - the tomb of Timur and the Timurids. Bukhara is a city-museum with more than 140 grand architectural monuments, among them - Ark-Citadel, Ismail Samani Mausoleum (9-10 cc.), Poi-Kalyan (12-16 cc.), Kosh-medrese (16c.). In the territory of the country established over 10 nature reserves, the largest are Chatkal and Miraklinsky. In Uzbekistan are many climatic and spa resorts: Tashkent Mineral Waters, Chartak, Agalyk, Chimgan and others.


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